The Civil War in the East

4th Texas Infantry Regiment

 

The 4th Texas Infantry Regiment mustered 1,343 men during the Civil War. It lost 256 men killed or mortally wounded and 486 men wounded in battle, and lost 161 men to disease.

 

The Texas regiments of the Army of Northern Virginia are honored by state monuments on the Antietam battlefield, on the Gettysburg battlefield, and on the Wilderness battlefield.

1861

April

Organized at a camp of instruction on the San Marcos River in Hays County.

July

Twenty companies not yet organized as regiments sent to Virginia.

September 30

The regiment was organized at Richmond. Field officers were appointed by the Confederate War Department rather than elected, as in other Confederate regiments. Robert T.P. Allen (USMA '34) was appointed colonel of the regiment

October 2

Colonel Allen's harsh discipline forced his resignation (he was literally driven from camp by the men) and he was relaced by Colonel John B. Hood. John F. Marshall, a Texan, became lieutenant colonel and Bradfute Warwick, a Virginian, was appointed as major. The regiment was assigned to Wigfall's Texas Brigade.

1862

February 20

Colonel Hood was promoted to brigadier general and took over the brigade.

March 3

Lieutenant Colonel Marshall was promoted to colonel, Major Warwick to lieutenant colonel and Captain John Cottlett Garrett Key of Company A was promoted to major.

April

The regiment mustered 470 men

May 7

Eltham's Landing

June 27

Battle of Gaines' Mill

The Texas Brigade broke the Federal line at Turkey Hill, The regiment lost 21 men killed, 63 wounded and 1 captured out of 500 men engaged. Colonel Marshall and Lieutenant Colonel Warwick were killed, and Major Key and Captain John Bane were wounded. Lieutenant Colonel Warwick was posthumously promoted to colonel, Major Key was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Benjamin F. Carter of Company B was promoted to major.

July 10

Lieutenant Colonel Key was promoted to colonel, Major Carter to lieutenant colonel and Captain William P. Townsend of Company C to major.

August 30

Second Battle of Manassas

Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel B.F. Carter, the regiment participated in Longstreet's attack on the second day of the battle, capturing a Federal battery. It lost 11 men killed and 20 wounded. Major Townsend was wounded, losing his foot.

September 14

Battle of South Mountain

The regiment lost 6 men killed and and 2 wounded. The regiment was commanded by Colonel Key, but after the battle he was forced to turn command over to Lt. Colonel Carter due to illness.

September 17

Battle of Sharpsburg (Antietam)

The regiment fought north of the Dunker Church in Miller's Cornfielld in some of the most intense fighting of the war, losing 57 men killed, 130 wounded and 23 captured. It was the regiment's largest loss during the Civil War. Captain R.H. Franks and Lieutenants Lemual P. Hughes, Henry M. Marchant, Andrew J. McKean, Nat J. Mills and John Roach were wounded.

December 13

Battle of Fredericksburg

The regiment was not heavily engaged.

December 29

Captain John P. Bane of Company D was promoted to major

1863

April - May

Suffolk Campaign

The regiment was detatched with the rest of Hood's Division for the campaign around Suffolk, Virginia, missing the Battle of Chancellorsville.

July 2-3

Battle of Gettysburg

The regiment brought 415 men to the field under Colonel Key. It took park in the attack on the Union flank and the fighting for Little Round Top on July 2nd. Colonel Key was badly wounded and Lieutenant Colonel Carter mortally wounded and captured. Major John P. Bane took command of the regiment.

 

The regiment lost 25 other men killed, 57 wounded and 58 captured. Lieutenant Joseph C. Smith was killed and Captain Decimus Barziza was wounded and captured.

 

From the State of Texas monument at Gettysburg:

From near this spot the Texas Brigade at about 4:30 p.m. on July 2 crossed Emmitsburg Road and advanced with Hood's Division across Plum Run toward Little Round Top. The Texas Brigade after severe fighting on the slopes of Little Round Top retired to a position on the south side of Devil's Den. The Brigade held this position the night of July 2 and during the day on July 3 then fell back to a position near this memorial on the evening of July 3. On the field at Gettysburg the Texas Brigade suffered 597 casualties.

July 21

Lieutenant Colonel Carter died of his wounds near Chambersburg. Major Bane was promoted to lieutenant colonel and Captain Clinton M. Winkler of Company I was promomted to major.

September 10

The Texas Brigade transfered with Hood's and McLaw's Divisions to the Army of the Tennessee

September 19-20

Battle of Chickamauga

Commanded by Lieutenant Colonel John P. Bane, the regiment was in the attack that broke the Federal line on the second day of the battle. The regiment lost 34 men killed, 40 wounded and 3 captured. Lt. Colonel Bane was wounded.

Fall

Colonel Key briefly returned to the regiment but the effects of his wounds proved to be too much for him to continue in command, and Lt. Colonel Bane resumed command. Colonel Key would die in 1866.

October 28

Battle of Wauhatchie

The regiment was forced to retreat for the only time during the war.

1864

April

The regiment returned to Virginia with the rest of Longstreet's men.

April 29

Colonel Key resigned due to his wounds from Gaines' Mill and Gettysburg. Lt. Colonel Bane was promoted to colonel, Major Winkler to lieutenant colonel and Captain William H. Martin of Company K was promoted to major.

May 7

Battle of the Wilderness

The regiment took part in the "Lee to the Rear" incident before charging with the Texas Brigade to plug a gap in the Confederate line. It lost 26 men killed, 95 wounded and 3 captured out of 207 men engaged.

 

From the front of the Texas mounment on The Wilderness battlefield:

Of approximately 800 troops involved the Texas Brigade counted over 500 casualties.

 

From the reverse of the monument:

"Who are you my boys?" Lee cried as he saw them gathering.

"Texas boys," they yelled, their number multiplying every second.

The Texans - Hood's Texans, of Longstreet's Corps, just at the right place and at the right moment! After the strain of the dawn, the sight of these grenadier guards of the South was too much for Lee. For once the dignity of the Commanding General was shattered for once his poise was shaken.

"Hurrah for Texas," he shouted, waving his hat, "Hurrah for Texas."

The willing veterans sprang into position...He would lead them in the countercharge...He spurred... Traveler
...on the heels of the infantry men.
...

"Go back, General Lee. Go back!" They cried ..."we won't go on unless you go back!"

- Douglas Southall Freeman

May 8-21

Battle of Spoysylvania Court House

June 3

Cold Harbor

Summer

Colonel Bane returned to Texas to recruit and to recover from his Chickamauga wound. He never returned to the regiment.

Fall & Winter

Siege of Petersburg

1865

April 9

Appomattox Court House

The regiment surrendered 15 officers and 145 enlisted men.




 
About the Author • ©2014 Steve Hawks